Test Identification Parade

Test Identification Parade

Author: Mr. Mudit Saxena, Galgotias University


In every criminal preliminary, the two most characteristic purposes of assurance are the accompanying: regardless of whether the supposed offense was carried out, and, assuming this is the case, who perpetrated the offense. One of the manners in which utilized to build up the character of an individual as the practitioner of a specific demonstration is by method for ID marches. Proof by method for ID marches is taken under Section 9 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. The motivation behind distinguishing proof procession is to test the veracity/reliability of the proof of the observer. The object of directing a Test Identification Parade (TIP) is, right off the bat, to fulfill the exploring authority, before dispatching the case to the court for preliminary, that the individual captured, who was not recently known to the observer, was, in reality, one of the individuals who carried out the wrongdoing; and besides, to fulfill the court that the charged captured is in actuality the guilty party. The entire thought behind TIP is to test whether the observer who professes to have seen the offenders at the hour of event/commission of the offense is altogether dependable and can distinguish the guilty parties from the middle of others with no guide or potentially another source. TIP is led to testing the veracity of the observers who guarantee to have seen the guilty parties submitting the offense. This act of TIP isn’t a result of strategy, yet out of reasonability.

Recognizable proof of a blamed in the court for the law is substantive proof, while, proof of ID in TIP, however, is essential proof yet isn’t substantive one, and the equivalent can be utilized uniquely to certify the ID of the denounced by the observer in the courtroom. It is fascinating to take note of that if TIP isn’t directed and the observer distinguishes the blamed without precedent for the courtroom, at that point, the proof in regards to recognizable proof in the official courtroom doesn’t ipso facto get forbidden and can’t be disposed of on the ground that it was not gone before by TIP; the court ID of charged without TIP is permissible if the court thinks that it’s reliable. The general principle is that the proof of recognizable proof of the blamed under the watchful eye of the court for law ought not, conventionally structure the premise of conviction until and except if it is substantiated by past ID in the TIP or vide some other proof, in spite of the fact that there are sure exemptions to this standard, for instance, on account of State of H.P. v. Prem Chand, the onlooker realized the blamed to be his uncle and had seen him going to his home upon the arrival of event and furthermore on the day going before the day of the event and unmistakably distinguished him in the official courtroom, here, the Apex Court held that there was no compelling reason to hold TIP. Further, on account of, Ramesh Kumar v. the State of Punjab, it was held that there is no requirement for distinguishing proof procession where the observers definitely knew who the aggressors were. TIP isn’t a sine qua non for each situation, that is, if the realities and conditions of a case indisputably set up the blame of the denounced, at that point, there is no compelling reason to hold TIP.


Typically, there is an extended time hole between the commission of an offense and the preliminary of the offense, and normally on the off chance that the blamed isn’t known to the onlooker, at that point, how might it be relied upon of the observer to recall minute subtleties, for example, outward presentation, physical structure, height and appearance of the denounced, and as a fundamental result, how might it be required of the observer to recognize the blamed with exactitude in the court for law; accordingly, to determine this irregularity, not long after the commission of wrongdoing, in the event that any onlooker is accessible, at that point TIP ought to be directed as an issue of need, reasonability and appropriateness and not simply methodology, so the onlooker can oust about the charged and the wrongdoing scene when his memory is new and pristine. It is imperative to take note of that, proof of TIP directed by police can’t be offered in the official courtroom in light of the fact that such recognizable proof adds up to an announcement made to the police and as needs are according to the indicate of Section 162 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973, such proof being in the idea of explanation made to the police during the examination it can’t be offered as proof in the official courtroom. So as to make TIP acceptable in the official courtroom, so it tends to be utilized to certify the oral proof that would be given in the courtroom, TIP must be directed within the sight of an officer (legal or official).

When the observer recognizes the denounced at the TIP directed before the justice, at that point, the officer turns into an observer and is to enlighten the court regarding the different preparatory advances that the judge took to see that the observer really chose the concerned charged/suspect at the TIP with no police help. In the event that an observer unmistakably and effectively distinguishes the denounced at the TIP however not under the steady gaze of the official courtroom, at that point, the proof of the justice, who led the TIP holding that the observer distinguished the charged at the TIP, bolstered by comments of the preliminary appointed authority with respect to the air of the observer, that, the observer was alarmed and was accordingly incapable to perceive the blamed at the preliminary, would be pertinent and adequate to convict the denounced.

On account of, Ahmed Bin Salam v. State of A.P., the police asked from the observer with regards to whether he could recognize the people who were on a bike and who tossed bombs towards the perished; the blamed people were from there on appeared to the observer and the observer distinguished them as charged. The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India held that such activity can’t be named as TIP.

Non-Substantive Evidence

TIP isn’t substantive proof; it just guarantees that the investigatory procedure is advancing on the right lines. TIP is a piece of the investigatory procedure under Section 162 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973. TIP shares have been practically speaking use for quite a while; the item is to put the suspect of wrongdoing in a line with others for recognizable proof. The design is to see if or not the suspect/blamed is the culprit for the wrongdoing. This is even more fundamental where the name and subtleties of the blamed, in spite of the fact that, are not known to the observers of the episode, in any case, still by reviewing the area of wrongdoing and the physical highlights (face, eyes, appearance, stature as well as body) of the denounced/suspect the onlookers can recognize the charged/suspect. The method of reasoning of TIP is to affirm the personality of the charged and to help the police in their examination. On account of, State of A.P. v. V.K. Venkata Reddy, the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India completely held that the proof given by an observer in the official courtroom is substantive declaration while the ID made by the observer in the TIP is just corroborative of the declaration made under the watchful eye of the official courtroom.

Delay must be explained

Further, on account of, Rabinder Kumar Pal v. Republic of India, the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India held that photograph ID of blamed and TIP are just assistants to the examination directed by the exploring official (‘I.O.’ for short) and these don’t shape substantive confirmations. The substantive proof is the proof in the courtroom on the pledge. The rationale behind TIP, which incorporates photograph distinguishing proof, lies in the way that it is just a guide to the examination, where a blamed isn’t known to the observers; the I.O. conducts TIP to guarantee that he has grasped the opportune individual as the charged.

Conditions required

Commonly TIP gets postponed due to the non-accessibility of the officer; the deferral in holding TIP must be represented acceptably, for instance, on account of, Rajesh Govind Jogesh v. State of Maharashtra[10], the clarification offered by the I.O. that no officer was accessible in Bombay for 5 (five) weeks for managing the TIP was held to be not a good clarification by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India; though, for another situation, Murarilal Jivaram Sharma v. State of Maharashtra[11], deferral of 2 (two) months in holding TIP was held to be adequately clarified where the I.O. albeit held composition to the officer for holding TIP yet the justice couldn’t extra time because of his pre-occupations. Postponements in holding TIP can diminish the trustworthiness that can be credited to the proof got vide the TIP course.

Nonappearance of TIP in all cases isn’t deadly, for instance, on account of Dastagir Singh v. State of Karnataka, where X was assaulted by An, and, X had the option to see A because of the closeness associated with the commission of wrongdoing, the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, held that to state that, TIP is important to test the veracity, unwavering quality and memory of X, will be unintelligible and absurd on the grounds that in offenses, for example, that of assault, the casualty herself is a “characteristic observer”. Be that as it may, for another situation, Devinder Singh v. State of H.P., the Apex Court held that, in light of the fact that the wrongdoing of assault was carried out in the night, in the room of the person in question, where there was no light, regardless of whether it is expressed that the casualty had a short-lived look at the denounced when the light was lit in the room after the commission of the wrongdoing, it won’t be sufficient as the charged was not known to the person in question, and, subsequently, it was occupant upon the arraignment to hold TIP, and inability to do so was held to be lethal to the instance of the indictment. On account of Jadunath Singh v. State of U.P., it was determinedly held that, if the arraignment ceases from holding TIP on the supplication that, the observer definitely knew the denounced, yet later it comes to pass over the span of the preliminary that the observer didn’t have the foggiest idea about the charged before, at that point, the indictment risks losing the case; along these lines, if there is any uncertainty, it is constantly prudent for the indictment to hold TIP. Despite what might be expected, on account of, Asha and Ors v. State of Rajasthan, the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India held that TIP was a bit much as the F.I.R. was stopped inside one (1) hour of the commission of the wrongdoing and the guilty parties were named in the F.I.R., that is, the offenders were known to the complainant.

Where the observer states under the watchful eye of the court that, he recognized the denounced at the TIP and the officer confirms the observer, at that point there is no trouble. In any case, the issue starts when the observer expresses that, (a) he didn’t distinguish the blamed at the TIP, however can recognize the charged in the court; or, (b) he identified the denounced at the TIP, yet can’t distinguish the blamed in the court; or, (c) he didn’t distinguish the charged at the TIP, nor can distinguish the blamed in the court. The inquiry for thought which emerges here is this: Can the justice give proof of the TIP which was held by him and during which the charge was distinguished by the observer?

The reason for TIP is to empower the observer who professes to have seen the commission of the wrongdoing, to recognize the blamed/suspect out of the few people arranged by the I.O. within the sight of legal/official officer. The TIP happens within the sight of justice and the judge readies the record of the TIP procedures. It is for the observer to bring up the denounced/suspect out of the few people and it is for the judge to authenticate the distinguishing proof by the observer of the blamed/suspect. In this way, in circumstances (an) and (c), there is nothing for the judge to authenticate, and it is just in circumstance (b) that an officer can substantiate the recognizable proof of the blamed/suspect by the observer.

Photographic Identification

Section 22 of the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act, 1987 (“TADA” for short) stated that: “Where an individual has been pronounced an announced guilty party in a fear-based oppressor case, the proof with respect to his recognizable proof by observers based on his photo will have a similar incentive as the proof of the test distinguishing proof motorcade.”

On account of, Kartar Singh v. State of Punjab established the legitimacy of Section 22 of TADA was tested under the steady gaze of the Apex Court. The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India held that Section 22 of TADA was against the reasonable and sensible system revered in Article 21 of the Constitution of India, 1950.

Voice Recognition

On account of, Mohan Singh v. State of Bihar, the preliminary related to an offense concerning trick for homicide; here, the observer heard the charged while the denounced was requesting cash from the person in question, and along these lines, the observer recognized the blamed by the voice for the blamed. Indeed, even preceding the event of the occurrence, the observer had some association with the blamed. The court held that the proof offered by the observer, distinguishing the charge by his voice was solid.


  • TIP should preferably be led as quickly as time permits to maintain a strategic distance from any error with respect to the observers. The legal/official judge who is to direct the TIP should initially familiarize himself with the realities of the case, and from there on he should observe the presumes who are to be recognized and the observers who will distinguish the suspects;
  • Where the arraignment witness is all around familiar with the blamed/suspect, holding of TIP is a finished misuse of open time and cash;
  • In a perfect world, before leading TIP, two free and all around considered people (not associated/related with police authorities) must be called-up by the police authorities to take an interest in the TIP. The legal/official officer should brief these autonomous people about the realities of the case, and, with respect to who is to be recognized (suspect) and what all’s identity is to approach to distinguish (observers);
  • All cops and constables must be asked to totally pull back themselves from the room where the TIP is to be directed;
  • In a perfect world, TIP must not be held in a police headquarters constructing but instead, isolated rooms must be saved for holding TIP in the independent building;
  • On account of, Bhaskar Virappa Kanchan State of Maharashtra, it was held that now and again TIP can be led even in a police headquarters, gave, the spot of recognizable proof is totally independent of the police office; police authorities have no entrance to where TIP is being directed; there was no open door for the distinguishing observers to see the blamed/suspect before the TIP, and there is nothing on record to state that the denounced/suspect was appeared to the distinguishing observers preceding the TIP;
  • Prior to the initiation of the TIP, the two autonomous all around considered people (panch witnesses) must be approached to bring the blamed/suspect from the lock-up room, and the legal/official judge must state in the distinguishing proof notice that the denounced was brought to the room where TIP was to be led by the separate two free people (panch witnesses);
  • At the point when the blamed/suspect is brought before the legal/official justice, at that point, it is officeholder upon the legal/official officer to permit the denounced/suspect to have any spot he loves in the motorcade. The spot the denounced/suspect chooses to remain at must be referenced in the ID reminder by the legal/official officer;
  • A denounced/suspect has no option to cover his face while the TIP is going on; in this way, it is vital that satisfactory number of fakers are made to remain with charged/suspect in the TIP, and preferably, each blamed must be put to distinguishing proof incoherently;
  • Before the procession starts, the legal/official judge must permit the blamed/suspect to modify his/her dress; on the off chance that the denounced/suspect adjusts his/her dress, at that point, the reality of his/her changing the dress must be recorded by the legal/official justice in the notice of distinguishing proof arranged by him;
  • The legal/official judge must make reference to in the distinguishing proof notice, regardless of whether the recognizing observers recognized the denounced/suspect straightway, or, after some faltering, or, in the wake of pointing at an inappropriate individual and afterward amending themselves;
  • Police specialists must guarantee that delay in directing TIP ought not to result in the presentation of personality of the charged to the observers as this will be lethal to the very reason of TIP;
  • Valuation for proof acquired vide the TIP course relies on the quality and reliability of the observers;
  • On the off chance that the way of holding TIP tosses question/doubt on the police authorities, at that point, TIP will have no evidentiary worth. In any case, minor nearness of police authorities or potentially open examiner at where TIP is directed won’t vitiate it, particularly when no partiality is appeared to have been caused to the accused;
  • Witnesses ought to be kept from seeing the suspect before he is strutted; in the event that there is just one presume who is to be recognized, at that point, at any rate about six of others must be set in the motorcade, be that as it may, on the off chance that there are two speculates that are to be distinguished, at that point there ought to be in any event ten (or twelve) of others that must be set in the procession. Not multiple suspects are to be put in any single TIP;
  • The speculate must be set among people of comparable stature, weight, age, physical structure and appearance beyond what many would consider possible;
  • On the off chance that there are a bigger number of observers than one, at that point, witnesses ought to be presented individually and ought to be approached to recognize the suspect; witnesses must be permitted to contact any of the people marched before them;
  • On the off chance that march happens in jail, at that point the jail official ought to be available all through the procession;
  • The distinguishing proof update arranged by the legal/official justice must contain the subtleties as respects the time, spot and date of the procession; subtleties of the panch witnesses (two autonomous people); names of the people remaining in the motorcade; and statements made by the recognizing witnesses;
  • On account of, Krishnarayana Babu v. State, it was held that it is the obligation of legal/official officer to observe each protest which is made by a charged/suspect at the hour of TIP with the goal that the court which needs to welcome the evidentiary estimation of the TIP can mull over those complaints and in the light of those protests can comprehend the substance of the recognizable proof notice;
  • After the TIP is finished at that point, the legal/official officer must peruse the substance of the recognizable proof update to the panch witnesses and they should sign the notice, expressing that they concur with the subtleties of the TIP contained in the reminder;
  • ID update must be written in the language of the court;
  • On the off chance that a First Class Magistrate or Second Class Magistrate exceptionally enabled for this sake by the State Government holds distinguishing proof, at that point, Section 164 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 applies and the recognizable proof reminder arranged is allowable in proof under Section 80 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 without confirmation. In any case, in the event that others, for example, Naib Tehsildar, (that is, Third Class Magistrate) holds recognizable proof procession, at that point, he should be approached to demonstrate the ID memo;
  • Court recognizable proof of the denounced/suspect just because by a distinguishing observer is commonly a proof of naturally feeble character;
  • There are no base number of witnesses that are required to distinguish the suspect/guilty party in TIP; and,
  • There is no legally recommended time limit inside which TIP must be directed. Reasonability requests that TIP must be directed at the earliest opportunity.