Uniform Civil Code and Personal Laws

Name: Aditi Saboo, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies


India is a land wherein different religions are followed like Islam, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Christianity, and so forth, to give some examples. India follows secularism. It is revered in our Constitution and was remembered for the preface after the 42nd Amendment in 1976. The term „secular‟ implies that the State won’t follow a specific religion and neither will individuals be separated due to the religion that they follow. This implies that individuals will be given the opportunity to follow any religion. This is likewise cherished in our Constitution as a central right under Article 253 and 264. In India, this term is critical on the grounds that it is huge to take note of that the parcel of India and Pakistan itself happened in light of religion. Religion has everlastingly been utilized as a weapon by the political foundations and has been a wellspring of contention for ages. The contention in Israel is additionally a result of religion. In India, diverse individual laws oversee distinctive religion. For instance, the Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, and Sikhs are administered by the Hindu Marriage Act of 1956 in cases that identify with marriage, support, separate, and so on The Christians are administered by the laws that identify with Christianity and Muslims by the Islamic Law. These are three wide organizations of individual laws in India – Hindu Law, Christian Islamic Laws and Christian Law. Presently the issue exists in the way that there are contrasts and errors inside the individual laws. There is no consistency. Likewise, there have been occasions where the individual laws prevented the rights from getting ladies or didn’t give them rights. To counter these inadequacies, the Uniform Civil Code can be ordered. The Uniform Civil Code implies a uniform individual law for all residents of the nation. This code will supplant the current strict individual laws in India and have a uniform law that will take into account all the residents, regardless of their religion. This has been observed by the makers of our Constitution under Article 44. In any case, it has been firmly contradicted on the grounds that it is observed as violative of Article 25 of the Constitution. This paper intends to move toward the idea of the Uniform Civil Code in a more useful and logical manner to guarantee that it very well may be appropriately executed in India and to check whether it is even reasonable for a nation like India. Its Legal Dimensions are remembered.


The women are viewed as inferior in the greater part of the individual issues when contrasted with men, particularly with regards to the conversation of the subject of the marriage or the progression, selection or even the legacy. Under the Hindu Law explicitly, in the year 1955 and 1996, the Hindu women didn’t appreciate equivalent rights alongside the Hindu men be it anything or any issue. Before 1955 polygamy was pervasive among the Hindus. The Hindu women couldn’t hold any property as its total proprietor except for Stridhan. She had just restricted domain which was gone to the lawful last full beneficiaries of the male proprietor called revisionary on her demise. She claimed a restricted interest, as in at whatever point an issue came up for the abandonment of the property and mortgaging or selling the property, she was unable to do it all alone.

At the point when it went to the matter of appropriation, a Hindu woman didn’t reserve the option to embrace a youngster all alone. She was unable to be the regular watchman of her youngsters during the life of her significant other. These models are illustrative enough to show the man-centric nature of Indian culture. Despite the fact that Hindu law has been classified, certain prejudicial arrangements sexist even today. For instance, a Hindu lady isn’t a coparcener in Hindu coparceners besides in a couple of states like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Subsequently, she isn’t qualified for the offer in the coparcenary. Subsequently, it is obscurity to the way that the codification of individual laws of Hindus has not succeeded totally in killing the sexual orientation imbalance.

With regards to examining the Muslim Law, in Pre Islamic Arabia, the women delighted in an optional status in light of the fact that from that point forward it has been a male-centric society from that point forward. The women from that point forward were viewed as auxiliary to men. The approach of Islam has contributed a lot with regards to the decay of Muslim women and the heightening of their issues. The Holy Quran gives equivalent rights to people and places women in a good position.

In any case, there are sure perspectives in Islam that render the situation of Muslim women particularly the spouses unreliable and sub-par. In Islam, a man is permitted to wed multiple times though the women can’t and if they do they are treated as unchaste and unclean. Women are not given the option to separate from their spouses when especially the strategy for separating from the wife by the husband by articulating triple Talaq is exceptionally unfair. This in spite of the message given in the Holy Quran. This has been held void5 and unlawful, as of late in the Allahabad High court judgment.

Indeed, even in the matter of progression, a Muslim lady has victimized the affirmation of certain Muslim researchers that Islam in such a manner is more reformist and liberal. The legitimate position is that when two researchers or residuary of another gender yet of a similar degree acquire the property of the perished, the Muslim male gets double the portion of the female. Indeed, even in the matter of support, the Muslim spouse isn’t needed to be kept up past the Iddat time frame. The Criminal Procedure Code which forces a commitment on the spouse to keep up his better half including separated from wife until she keeps up herself is a common law and is appropriate to all, anyway there is a debate with respect to the Muslim men following this arrangement.

In the acclaimed instance of Mohd Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum[1], the Supreme Court talking through Y.V. Chandrachud, the then Chief Justice held that Section 1257 of the Criminal Procedure Code is likewise material to the Muslims and that even a Muslim spouse is obligated to keep up his separated from wife past the iddat period. The debate started and the parliament had passed the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986 to overrule the judgment in the Shah Bano Case. The impact of this demonstration is that a Muslim husband isn’t at risk to keep up his separation from his wife past the iddat period except if both the life partners submit to the court at the suitable time that they might want to be administered by the Criminal Procedure Code. This resembles having the arrangement yet not utilizing it for assurance of the Personal law space and not giving enough equity to the one who is enduring to such an extent.


The fundamental issue lies in the way that if the makers of the Constitution had expected for a Uniform Civil code to be implemented in India, at that point they ought not to have set it under Article 44 of the Constitution as a piece of the Directive Principles of the State Policy. The Directive Principles of State Policy contained in Part IV (Art. 36 – 51), as the name proposes are simple headings to the State. They need not be compulsorily followed and are not enforceable by the Court. They are simply certain commitments on the State which will help in great administration.

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution unmistakably expresses that India is a Secular, Democratic, Republic. This implies that there is no State religion. A common state will not victimize anybody on the ground of religion. Religion is just worried about the connection of man with God. It implies that religion ought not to be meddling with the commonplace existence of a person. The cycle of secularization is personally associated with the objective of the Uniform Civil Code like circumstances and logical results. On account of S.R. Bommai v. Association of India[2], according to Justice Jeevan Reddy, it was held that religion is a matter of individual confidence and can’t be blended in with mainstream exercises and can be controlled by the State by authorizing a law. In India, there exists an idea of positive secularism as recognized from the principle of secularism acknowledged by the United States and the European States for example there is a mass of partition between the religion and the state.

In India, positive secularism isolates spiritualism from individual faith. The explanation is that America and the European States experienced the phases of renaissance, renewal and illumination and consequently they can sanction a law expressing that State will not meddle with the religion. India has not gone through any sort of renaissance or reorganization and in this manner, the duty lies on the state to meddle in the issues of religion to eliminate the hindrances in the administration of the express The motivation behind why a nation like India can’t go through a renaissance is exceptionally clear. The odds are that the contentions, rather than diminishing may continue expanding and demonstrating reverse consequences for the laws that are made. For example, a training or a custom in one’s very own law might be satisfactory yet then again, it may not be adequate to the individuals of other individual laws. Along these lines, when the conventions will be practically speaking, the idea of the contention will change itself from general contrasts to no-nonsense hostility. Individuals think that its hard to acknowledge or adjust to specific changes and with regards to the general public like India where religion characterizes the lifestyle, individuals associate themselves with their religion as opposed to understanding that it is the religion which is made by people and that people are not made by the religion. This idea winds up in the memorial park since certain individuals put stock in consuming. There should be a uniform law that oversees and manage the conduct of individuals of the relative multitude of religions and no specific part of the general public.

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution makes plans to comprise a “Common” Democratic Republic. This implies that there is no state religion or all in all the state doesn’t work on any one specific religion and will not segregate on the ground of religion. Article 25 and 26 of the Constitution of India as enforceable crucial rights ensure the opportunity of religion and the opportunity to oversee strict undertakings. Simultaneously Article 44 which isn’t enforceable in an official courtroom expresses that the state will try to make sure about a uniform common code in India. Uniform common Code is the uniform technique or the uniform law that administers the individuals as a uniform law and doesn’t segregate based on any religion or confidence.

As another guideline develops and comes into the information on the individuals a few inquiries emerge and reactions clear their direction. In the unification of the individual laws, a significant inquiry that emerged was what will be the elements of the Uniform common code. Since the individual laws of every religion contain separate arrangements, their unification will bring disdain, yet in addition hostility in general society towards each other, consequently, the Uniform Civil Code should get such laws that find some kind of harmony between the security of the basic rights and the strict standards of the various networks that exist in the nation. Issues, for example, marriage, separation, upkeep and so forth can be issues of common nature and law can direct them.

Uniform Civil Code in Goa:

Goa is the only state in India that has a uniform common code paying little heed to religion, sexual orientation, standing. Goa has a typical family law. In this way, Goa is the main Indian express that has a uniform common code. In Goa Hindu, Muslims, Christians all are bound with the same law related to marriage, divorce, succession. At the point when the Goa turned into the piece of association domain in 1961 by the temperance of the Goa Daman and Diu organization act 1962 the parliament approved the Portuguese common code of 1867 to Goa and will be altered and revoked by the capable council.

In Goa, marriage is a contract between two individuals of different sex to live respectively and comprise the real family which is register before the workplace of the common enlistment center. Also, the specific standards and guideline hosts to be trailed by the gatherings after that they can live respectively and begin their life however there are sure limitations as per which these classes of individuals are restricted to perform marriage for instance: any life partner indicted for submitting or abetting the murder of another companion shall not marry.

Special Marriage Act, 1954:

This type of marriage act provides a civil marriage of two men of different sex regardless of their religion. This law won in Indian to have their marriage outside the traditions of their law. This law is applied everywhere in India aside from Jammu and Kashmir since they have given special status under article 370. His law is practically indistinguishable from the Hindu marriage act 1955 this law gives a thought of how the law is secularized towards the Hindus.

The special marriage acts all Muslim people group individuals to marry under it. Under this demonstration polygamy was unlawful and the arrangement of progression would be represented by the  Indian progression International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue 4690 act even the arrangement of separated is additionally administered by this law. However, for separate, there are sure arrangements that are continued in Goa. Muslim people group individuals that have registered their marriage in Goa can’t take more than one wife as per this demonstration and during the marriage time span all the property and abundance claimed by the couple every life partner have directly in the property the offer half – half of the property and if a spouse dies the half portion of the property were goes to the next. Also, the other half property was divided between the kids in a similar proportion.

[1] 1985 SCR 844

[2] 1994 AIR 1918