HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
Author: Kavya Jhawar, GLS Law college, Ahmedabad.
Human Trafficking is one of the worst problems which the world is facing now with some countries being the biggest importer whereas some are an exporter and this is how all the countries are contributing to this crime. The United Nations defines Human Trafficking as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons by improper means (such as force, abduction, fraud, or coercion) for an improper purpose including forced labor or sexual exploitation. Every year, men, women, and children are trafficked in countries around the world, including the United States.
WHICH COUNTRIES HAVE HIGHEST RATE OF TRAFFICKING?
- According to the U.S. State Department which annually investigates more than 100 countries for its Trafficking in Persons Report, in 2017 has held 5 countries as Trafficking prone countries.
||Tier 3 since 2013
||Tier 3 since 2014
These countries are listed in the tier 3 countries which are famous for the human trafficking. The Government of these countries have failed to control the scenario.
WHAT ARE STEPS TAKEN BY DIFFERENT COUNTRIES TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF TRAFFICKING?
The problem of human trafficking is on the rise and is becoming worse day by day.
The reasons for this trafficking are many; some being
- The trafficking of women is very common for the purposes of prostitution; they are sold in different countries. Women become the easy prey for this business and the person selling the women earns good money so this business is on a hike.
- Generally, it happens that the women sold are kidnapped or abducted and thereafter they are sold to other countries so that they cannot be traced. Prostitution is also one of the reasons for abduction or kidnapping of women; they are forced into the field of prostitution to do sexual favors to those who come for the same without the women’s will.
- The trafficking of young boys and girls is also very common between the ages of 7-12 years. They are trafficked for the purposes of slavery, forced labor, begging and exploitation. According to Section 374 of I.P.C.- forced labor is when a person is compelled to do anything against his/her wish.
- Children from one country are kidnapped and trafficked in another and become the victims of slavery. They are forced to work as servants.
- In some cases, it happens that the children are taken from the village on the pretext of higher education by some unknown person and in cities they become slaves.
- Children are also trafficked for the purpose of begging. Sometimes their body part is cut off so that people can sympathize with them and give money.
- The children are forced to work in hazardous industries like firecrackers or tobacco as they are easily available and are paid less.
- In some countries, where only one marriage is allowed i.e. monogamy but some males are not satisfied with their marriage so they try to engage with prostitutes and this has given rise to trafficking.
WHAT ARE THE STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT?
The problem of human trafficking is constantly on the rise so the government of various nations is trying to put their last bone to solve this problem.
Some of the nation’s efforts are:
- India has become part of various treaties like SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution as well as United Nations Convention on Transnational Organised Crime (UNCTOC).
- Established Anti-Trafficking Nodal Cell.
- Enacted The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) “which is the premier legislation for prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
- Enacted POCSO (Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012) for the children.
- The government is also providing funds for rehabilitation and other issues of the victims of human trafficking.
- An MOU was signed was between India and Bangladesh for Prevention of Human Trafficking in Women and Children, Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation, and Reintegration of Victims of Trafficking.
Thus, Indian Government is taking all the possible efforts to curb this situation.
Bahrain is also making some efforts to curb the problem of Human Trafficking. Every year more than 150,000 people are known to be trafficked within South Asia every year, but the trade is underground and the real number is likely to be much higher.
India and Bahrain are said to be entered in bilateral agreement to curb the problem of human trafficking and help the victims. It will aim to ensure speedy investigation and prosecution of traffickers in either country. Measures will also be taken to prevent trafficking, and repatriation of victims will be done quickly.
According to one U.S. report, “Although Bahrain has developed a national plan of action and created an inter-ministerial taskforce on trafficking, these efforts were not accompanied by concrete actions to address the substantial trafficking problem it faces”.
Russia is considered one of the worst countries for human trafficking. Major cases of trafficking take place in Russia. In Russia, a considerable positive experience in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings is accumulated, which manifests itself in the adoption of relevant legislation, creation of corresponding structures within the law-enforcement agencies, and elaboration of practices for effective interdepartmental and international cooperation between the law enforcing agencies, as well as between the state authorities, local authorities and the NGOs. The main problems stem from the lack of a national strategy (program) to combat trafficking in human beings and assist victims of trafficking.
China is also considered as one of the worst countries in the problem of human trafficking. The Chinese Government is also making serious efforts for protecting the problem of Human Trafficking.
The plan focuses on:
- Building education and awareness among the public and law enforcement personnel, especially in key areas and with at-risk populations, in order to exchange information, learn best practices, and improve existing legislation and the current system.
- Preventing trafficking-related crimes through poverty alleviation, education, and vocational training programs tailored to at-risk populations, encouraging women to participate in the community, increasing public awareness of laws and regulations related to trafficking, especially in areas such as railway and bus stations, and strengthening assistance to at-risk groups.
- Strengthening relief and rehabilitation of rescued women and children by increasing the number of women and children who receive training, aid, and medical treatment, such as by adding “institutions for relief service, transfer, and rehabilitation as well as training” to agencies and training personnel at these institutions, encouraging companies, groups, and individuals to provide financial and technical support and services, and providing legal aid and legal awareness training to rescued women and children.
- Strengthening international cooperation among police, United Nations agencies, and other international entities, strengthening border control, entry-exit certificate inspection, and “cracking down on illegal activities that involve crossing national borders.
An estimated 20 million people around the world are victims of the heinous crime of human trafficking. No anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts were reported, and government officials themselves continued to be complicit in trafficking crimes, including the coerced recruitment and use of Afghan men for combat in Syria, and the funding of militias in Iraq that recruited and used child soldiers. Iran though being the worst place for trafficking, the Government is still silent and not putting any efforts.
UN aims to fight human trafficking by building support for the following goals:
- Raise awareness
- Strengthen prevention
- Reduce demand
- Support and protect victims
- Improve law enforcement
- Implement international commitments
- Enrich knowledge
- Strengthen partnerships
- Create a special purpose fund
- Create an informal contact group
The aim of UN is to ‘THINK GLOBALLY AND ACT LOCALLY’ only then the results will be brought. Thus, the Government of almost all the countries is trying hard in one or the other way to curb the menace of Human Trafficking.
WHAT ARE THE STEPS TAKEN BY SUPREME COURT OF INDIA?
- Even the Indian Supreme court looking to this situation has tried to control it by issuing guidelines and in the form of judgments.
- The Supreme Court in the case of M.C. Mehta v. State of Tamil Nadu (Child Labor Case)- has held that the children below 14 years of age should not be employed in any hazardous industry like firecrackers or tobacco.
- SC of India held that trafficking is not legal and it should be stopped as soon as possible. Those women who are forced in prostitution and those children who are maimed (wound, injure a person so that part of the body is permanently damaged) for the purpose of begging against their wish is completely bad so immediate steps should be taken.
WHAT EFFORTS SHOULD BE TAKEN BY AN INDIVIDUAL?
The problem of trafficking has been ranked as the third most happening crime in the world and so all the countries are entering into agreements and treaties to curb the existing problem. The government has been trying to do what it can and we as citizens cannot blame everything on the Government and should make some efforts on our part to improve the present scenario-
- Intelligent people should try to take out some time to spread awareness among the lower section of society (the weak in the form of money and intelligence both) who are unaware about their basic rights regarding the problem of human trafficking. People should be made aware of how this happens, why this happens and what happens after the person is trafficked.
- People should know about the precautionary measure which they can take to prevent the trafficking like girls can keep with them chilly spray or small knife to rescue themselves out.
- Children should be taught about not accepting any item from unknown persons.
- Patrolling by police should be increased at night to keep a constant check on the activities going around.
- Individuals should unite together and stand against the illegal trafficking going on in the world. If we all will stand together against such heinous crime, the Government will be forced to do something about it.
- Law made by the legislature should be enforced effectively and we, the citizens should help the executive with the issue of law enforcement.
- Individuals should put efforts and help others when they (individual) find others in trouble or when anyone needs help.
Citizens should do something for their country so that the problem of trafficking meets the end.
HAS THE SITUATION IMPROVED?
- Though many efforts are taken by the Government and even by the individuals to some extent, the situation has not been improved to that extent to which it was expected. Though there are conventions, treaties, agreements made to combat this evil of trafficking, the results are not as per expectation.
- The U.S. State Department annually investigates more than 100 countries for its Trafficking in Persons Report. In 2017, 23 countries were classified as Tier 3 nations, the lowest classification for countries that “do not fully meet the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s minimum standards and even are not making any significant efforts to do so.”
- There are approximately 20 to 30 million slaves in the world today. 80% of trafficking involves sexual exploitation and 19% involves labor exploitation.
- According to U.S. Government, 6,00,000 to 8,00,000 women, children and men bought and sold across international borders every year and exploited for forced labor or commercial sex and if internal trafficking victims are added to the estimates, the number of victims will increase by 2 to 4 million.
The situation till now has not been improved. Sincere efforts by the Government and individual have to be taken to control the entire situation. Definitely if strict actions are taken with unity then the situation can improve and will improve for sure.
“TOGETHER WE STAND,
DIVIDED WE FALL.”
This concept should be adopted and we should proceed to achieve our target