Author: Priyanka saraogi
A journal is a publication containing articles written by researchers, professors and other experts. Journals mainly focus on a specific field of study. Journals are for academic or technical audience, not general readers. Journals are peer reviewed. They are the original research and mainly focus on current developments. They can be in print, online or both. Journals are published on a regular basis (monthly, quarterly, etc.). Each copy is an issue; a set of issues makes a volume (usually each year is a separate volume).
TYPES OF JOURNALS
There are various types of journals including:
- Academic/scholarly journals: It informs, report, and makes available original research and new findings. It often devoted to a single discipline or sub discipline. It mainly held in libraries or on subscription-based databases. Few of them are freely available on the WWW.
- Trade journals: It reports on industry trends, new products or techniques to people in a specific trade, business or profession. It mainly covers practical information related to a field or industry. It is commonly available as part of professional / trade association membership.
- Current affairs/opinion magazines: It offers deep reporting and feature articles without scholarly conventions. It covers a wide range of topics of interest to the readership. It is available from major newsagents, public libraries and some university libraries.
- Popular magazines: It entertains and inform without providing in-depth information. It often focused on a particular subject or hobby but may also cover a variety of topics.
- Newspapers: It encompasses current events in politics, sport, leisure, religion and business.
- Research options.
Online journals come with several research options, which help widen the scope. They allow exploring both quantitative and qualitative research, for better results. With both, one can analyze data, opinions, verbal data, etc. This gives a wider range of information to work with, and one can, therefore, perform a comprehensive research. These options allow conducting proper research so that one can craft a research paper worth its salt.
- Provides case studies.
Journals include real life case which is excellent sources of deep information and knowledge. By
following case studies, one can apply the wealth of knowledge to real life situations and play scenarios out in mind for better understanding.
- Provides great reading with a wealth of knowledge.
Journals promote active reading and deep thinking. They offer a great amount of knowledge which comes critiqued and forces you to critique it also. They also drive the zeal to write enriching work. All these sharpen the authority with the chosen topics.
- Focused research.
Journals are like encyclopedias, offering information in large quantities to scholars, researchers and others. There’s a wide variety of information. For narrowing the search to a focused angle it becomes easier because all one need is to search in specific phrases and can get thousands of search results.
- Broadened perspective.
Journals are a collection different of thoughts and opinions by different authors who, after conducting researches and analyses, pen down their thoughts and finding in journals. Just like talking to different people about a certain topic broadens your perspective on the topic, so does reading the thoughts and conclusions of different authors. Journals help one view topics from many different angles, hence formulating your individual opinion and conclusion.
- Peer review
The articles found in many journals go through a “peer-review” process. In other words, the articles are checked by academics and experts. The information is therefore reliable. As well as containing scholarly information.
- Original information
Journals help one when need of original research arises on a topic; articles and essays written by scholars or subject experts; factual documented information to reinforce a position; or references lists that point you to other relevant research.
Online journal articles are a specialized form of electronic document, they have the purpose of providing material for research and study, and they are formatted approximately like journal articles in traditional printed journals. Often a journal article will be available for download in two formats –
- as a PDF and
- in HTML format,
Although other electronic file types are often supported for supplementary material.
With the development of the internet and technology, there has been a huge growth in the number of new journals, especially in those which exist as digital publications only. These journals exist as Open Access titles, meaning that they are accessible to all. Most however continue to exist as subscription journals, for which libraries, organizations and individuals purchase access.
Online Publications of Journals
Due to recurrent and significant problems with online publications, the latter are not ISSN assigned ahead of publication. ISSNs are assigned to online publications only after the release of the first issue, provided that this issue contains a significant number of articles. If it is considered that the first issue does not enough articles for being regarded as an actual and complete issue, the ISSN assignment will be deferred. For all non-annual e-journals, 5 articles are considered as a minimum for making a complete issue. In case of annual publications including journals, a minimum of 10 articles are required for making a complete issue.
Additionally, editorial boards with complete addresses of the editorial board members including Official\Institutional email address of the members and full contact address of Publisher with Publisher name should be displayed on the journal website. The journal should have a valid URL address and should cover a precise subject or address a specific target audience.
Requirement of ISSN for publication
If the publication is issued simultaneously on different media (print and online with the same title or not), or in different language editions, different ISSN shall be assigned to those different editions.
Information/documents needed for ISSN assignment
Fill in the web form carefully and submit the print copy of the application form.
For a print version: complete issue or copy of the cover, title page, editorial page and minimum 5-6 original articles. The editorial page must show the affiliation of the editors.
For an online version: the URL (electronic address) of the publication. The name and address of the publisher must be displayed on the publication. Editorial board with affiliation of the editors and minimum 5-6 original articles in each issue is mandatory. It is particularly important for the name of the publisher and the place of publication to be printed or displayed on the resource.
ISSN and ISBN
“ISBN” is “International Standard Book Number” and “ISSN” is “International Standard Serial Number.”
Both ISBN and ISSN are codes that are used by publishers for numbering their publications.
One of the main differences between ISBN and ISSN is that the former one identifies the publisher whereas the other one does not identify the publisher.
International Standard Book Number is given for monographs or books whereas the International Standard Serial Number is given to a series of monographs or books. In other words, the ISBN is assigned for a single book, and ISSN is assigned for a series of books. When ISBN identifies the specific volume or issue, the ISSN only identifies the series of the volume or issue. ISSN is optional, which means that the publisher is not legally bound to use it. On the other hand, the ISBN is obligatory if the book falls under the ISBN application.
The International Standard Book Number is a 13-digit standard code. After 2007, the ISBN has a 13-digit number standard code.
The International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit standard number. It is the number given to one set of the series, and once the series changes, another ISSN code is allotted. The ISSN standard number codes are assigned by the ISSN National Centers and are coordinated by the ISSN International Center that is based in Paris.
The ISSN (International Standard Serial Number / International Normalized number of Serials) and ISBN (International Standard Book Number) are numeric identification codes. The ISSN identifies the series whilst the ISBN identifies the delivery or the concrete volume. Therefore, the ISSN will be the same in successive deliveries or volumes of the series (if the title is not changed), while the ISBN will be different for each of them.